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CONGENITAL MYOPATHIES & WEAKNESS

CONGENITAL WEAKNESS
Absent muscles
Actin aggregate: ACTA1; 1q42
Apoptosis
Arthrogryposis
Autophagy, high: VMA21; Xq28 
Broad A band
Cap
Carey-Fineman-Ziter: TMEM8C; 9q34
Central core: RYR1; 19q13
Centronuclear (Myotubular)
CMH4: MYBPC3; 11p11
CMND: SPTBN4; 19q13
Collagens
  Bethlem
  COL12A1: 6q13
  MED: COL9A2 & COL9A3
  P4HA1
  Ullrich
Cylindrical spirals
Cytoplasmic Body (Spheroid)
Danon: LAMP2; Xq24
Diarrhea & Deafness
DOPA-responsive dystonia
Ehlers-Danlos: FKBP14; 7p14
EMARDD: MEGF10; 5q23
Fiber Type
  Size Δ (CFTD)
  Type I predominance
    ZAK: 2q31
Fingerprint body
Focal
FSH dystrophy: 4q35
Hyaline body: MYH7; 14q11
IBM3: MYH2; 17p13
 
Lethal congenital: CNTN1; 12q11
Mallory body: SEPN1; 1p36
Mental retardation: CUL4B; Xq24
Metabolic disorders
Mitochondrial
Multicore (Minicore)
Muscular Dystrophy (CMD)
  α-Dystroglycan
  CDG
Myasthenic Syndromes
Myofibrillar
Myopathy: CACNA1S; 1q32
Myosin storage: MYH7; 14q11
Myotonic dystrophy 1: DMPK; 19q13
Native American: Stac3; 12q13
Nemaline rod
Neuropathic syndromes
Ophthalmoplegias
Perifascicular myopathy, neonatal
Reducing body: FHL1; Xq26
Sarcotubular (LGD 2H): TRIM32; 9q31
Shwachman–Diamond: SBDS; 7q11
Skeletal disorders + Weakness
Spheroid body: MYOT; 5q31
Spindle excess: HRAS; 11p15
Tel Hashomer camptodactyly
Thin filaments, Excess: α-Actin; 1q42
Triadin knockout: TRDN; 6q22
Trilaminar myopathy
Type 1 fiber smallness
Williams-Beuren syndrome
Woods-Black-Norbury syndrome
Zebra body: α-Actin; 1q42
CONGENITAL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
Adducted thumbs & Ophthalmoplegia
Axon loss, Large myelinated & CNS Δ
α-Dystroglycan disorders (MDDG)
Cataracts & ID: INPP5K; 17p13
Cerebellar atrophy
CMD + Cardiomyopathy: Titin; 2q24
Desmin inclusions: SEPN1; 1p36
Dysferlin: 2p13
EBSMD: Plec1; 8q24
Fukuyama: Fukutin; 9q31
Glycosylation disorders
Integrin α-7: 12q13
Joint Hyperlaxity: 3p23
Laminin-α2 (Merosin)
  Deficient (MDC1A): 6q22
  Normal: "Pure" form
Marinesco-Sjögren: SIL1; 5q31
MDCDC: TRIP4; 15q22
Mitochondrial structure: CHKB; 22q13
Multisystem disorder: PIGY; 4q22
Muscle-Eye-Brain Disorders
Muscle hypertrophy
  Mental retardation
  Respiratory failure (MDC1B): 1q42
  Muscles large (MDC1C): FKRP; 19q13
  Retardation (MDC1D): LARGE; 22q12
Myasthenic syndrome: DOK7; 4p16
Rigid spine with CMD
  SEPN1: 1p36
  Lamin A/C: 1q21
  SECISBP2: 9q22
  Other rigid spine syndromes
Santavuori (Finn): POMGnT1; 1p34
Telethonin: 17q12
Ullrich 1
  COL6A
    1; 21q22
    2; 21q22
    3; 2q37
Ullrich 2: COL12A1; 6q13
Walker-Warburg (MDDGA)


Batten
ABSENT or WEAK
MUSCLES

Abdominal
Brachial plexus
Cardiofacial syndrome
Depressor anguli oris
Diaphragm
Eye (Extraocular muscles)
  Blepharophimosis
  Congenital fibrosis
  Duane's syndrome
  Horizontal gaze
    HGPPS: 1; 2
  Möbius syndrome
  Ptosis
  Superior rectus
Finger extensors
Holt-Oram
Palmaris longis
Pectoral
Peroneus tertius
Poland syndrome
Prune belly
Psoas (CHILD)
Thenar eminence
Trapezius



Congenital Weakness: General




from A Kornberg MD

Central Core Disease ± Malignant Hyperthermia

  Ryanodine Receptor 1 (RYR1; RyR) ; Chromosome 19q13.2; Dominant or Recessive

Genetics
RyR protein
Clinical
Laboratory
Pathology
Variants
  RyR clinical syndromes
    Dominant
      Central core diseases
        Congenital myopathy
        Cores, Rods & Malignant Hyperthermia
        Limb-Girdle Syndrome: Onset in teens
        Minicores, Transient
        Fetal akinesia
      Malignant Hyperthermia: Onset in teens
      King-Denborough Syndrome
      High serum CK: Asymptomatic
      Congenital + Type 1 fibers (CNMDU1)
      Axial myopathy, Adult onset
    Recessive
      Central core diseases
        Minicores, Transient
        Fetal akinesia
        Mild phenotype & Recessive inheritance
        Samaritan myopathy
      Myopathy with Myofibril Δ: PYROXD1
      Nemaline rods + External ophthalmoplegia
      Congenital myopathy
        Centronuclear myopathy
        Fatigable weakness
        Focal lost striations
  Core syndromes
    MYH7
    ACTA1
  Multicore/Minicore syndromes

NADH Stain

Nemaline (Rod) Myopathies

Clinical features: General
Laboratory features: General
Pathology

Hereditary Types
  NEM1: α-tropomyosin 3 (TPM3); 1q21; Dom or Rec
  NEM2: Nebulin(NEB); 2q23; Recessive
  NEM3: α-Actin (ACTA1); 1q42
    Dominant
    Recessive
  NEM4: β-tropomyosin(TPM2); 9p13; Dom or Rec
  NEM5: Troponin T1 (TNNT1); 19q13; Recessive
  NEM6: KBTBD13; 15q22; Dominant
  NEM7: Cofilin-2 (CFN2); 14q13; Recessive
  NEM8: KLHL40; 3p22; Recessive
  NEM9: KLHL41; 2q31; Recessive
  NEM10: LMOD3; 3p14; Recessive
  NEM11: MYPN; 10q21; Recessive
  NEM: Ryanodine receptor (Ryr1); 19q13
    Rods + Cores: Dominant
    Rods + Ophthalmoplegia: Recessive
  Also
    Cap myopathy
    CFTD
    Myopathy with Myofibril Δ: PYROXD1
    Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency
    Rod myopathy, mild
    Zebra body

Sporadic disorders with rods
  Infant onset myopathy
  Adult onset myopathy
  HIV rod myopathy
  Target fibers (Acute Denervation)
Rod myopathy: Distal weakness & contractures



From A Connolly


Rod myopathies: General features 22

ROD MYOPATHIES: Specific syndromes



NEM1 Rod myopathy
  α-Tropomyosin 3 (TPM3)
; Chromosome 1q21.3; Dominant or Recessive



NEM2 Rod myopathy
  Nebulin (NEB)
; Chromosome 2q23.3; Recessive


NEM3 Rod myopathy
  α-Actin (ACTA1; Skeletal muscle)
; Chromosome 1q42.13; Dominant or Sporadic, or Recessive

NEM4 Rod myopathy
  β-Tropomyosin (TPM2)
; Chromosome 9p13.3; Dominant or Recessive


NEM5 Rod myopathy 13
  Troponin T1 (Skeletal, Slow; TNNT1)
; Chromosome 19q13.42; Recessive

NEM6 Rod myopathy with Slow movements 27
  Kelch-repeat and BTB (POZ) domain containing 13 (KBTBD13) ; Chromosome 15q22.31; Dominant

NEM7 Rod myopathy 65
  Cofilin-2 (CFL2) ; Chromosome 14q13.1; Recessive

NEM8 Nemaline Rod myopathy, severe 107
  Kelch-like family member 40 (KLHL40; KBTBD5; Sarcosynapsin; SYRP) ; Chromosome 3p22.1; Recessive

NEM9: Nemaline Rod myopathy 9 111
  Kelch-like family member 41 (KLHL41; KBTBD10) ; Chromosome 2q31.1; Recessive
NEM: Nemaline Rod myopathy 10 (NEM10) 115
  Leiomodin-3 (LMOD3) ; Chromosome 3p14.1; Recessive
NEM 11: Nemaline Rod myopathy 136
  Myopalladin (MYPN) ; Chromosome 10q21.3; Recessive

Rod myopathy: Mild 64
  Dominant

Rod myopathy: Other forms

Centronuclear (Myotubular) Myopathy 89

Types
  Dominant
    CNM1: Dynamin 2; 19p13
      CNM modifier: MTMR14
    CNM3: MYF6; 12q21
    CNM4: CCDC78; 16p13
    CNM: BIN1: 2q14
  Recessive
    CNM2: BIN1: 2q14
    CNM: RYR1: 19q13
    CNM: TTN; 2q31
    CNM + DCM: SPEG; 2q35
    Canine (Labrador): PTPLA
  X-linked
    CNMX: MTM1; Xq28
      Carriers
  Differential diagnosis
    Myotonic dystrophy 1, Congenital
Pathology

Congenital Myopathy: Triadin knockout syndrome 138
  Triadin (TRDN) ; Chromosome 6q22.31; Recessive

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy: Typical Features


Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (MDDGA4): Muscle-Eye-Brain

  Fukutin (FKTN) ; Chromosome 9q31.2; Recessive


Congenital muscular dystrophy: Merosin (laminin α2-chain) deficient (MDC1A)

  Laminin α2 ; Chromosome 6q22.33; Recessive




CMD: Normal merosin

Normal Merosin: "Pure" form of congenital MD

  Recessive

Congenital MD with integrin α-7 mutations

  Integrin α-7 (ITGA7) ; Chromosome 12q13.2; Recessive

Congenital MD with Joint Hyperlaxity 63

  ? Integrin-α9 (ITGA9) ; Chromosome 3p22.2; Recessive

Congenital MD with CNS atrophy & Absent large myelinated peripheral nerve axons

  Recessive

Congenital MD with cerebellar atrophy

  ? Autosomal recessive

Muscle-Eye-Brain Disorders 19

Fukuyama
Muscle-eye-brain disease (Santavuori)
Walker-Warburg

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Familial Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (EBSMD)

  Plectin (Plec1) ; Chromosome 8q24.3; Recessive

Congenital muscular dystrophy with Mitochondrial Structural Abnormalities (Megaconial) (MDCMC) 2

  Choline kinase beta (CHKB) ; Chromosome 22q13.33; Recessive

From D Cummings MD
Congenital MD + Rigid Spine

Congenital muscular dystrophy with early Spine Rigidity

  Selenoprotein N, 1 (SEPN1; SELENON) ; Chromosome 1p36.11; Recessive
  Recessive

Congenital muscular dystrophy with respiratory failure & muscle hypertrophy (CMD1B; MDC1B) 7

  Chromosome 1q42; Recessive

Early-onset Myopathy with Areflexia, Respiratory Distress & Dysphagia (EMARDD) 87

  Multiple epidermal growth factor-like domains 10 (MEGF10) ; Chromosome 5q23.2; Recessive

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Muscle hypertrophy (MDC1C; MDDGB5) 16, 26

  Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) ; Chromosome 19q13.32; Recessive

Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy 1 (UCMD1; Scleroatonic) 21

  Collagen, type VI, subunit α1 (COL6A1) ; Chromosome 21q22.3; Recessive or Dominant
  Collagen, type VI, subunit α2 (COL6A2) ; Chromosome 21q22.3; Recessive or Dominant
  Collagen, type VI, subunit α3 (COL6A3) ; Chromosome 2q37.3; Recessive or Dominant

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Mental Retardation & Abnormal Glycosylation (MDDGA6; MDC1D) 43

  LARGE (Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-like protein) ; Chromosome 22q12.3; Recessive

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy + Cataracts & Intellectual Disability (MDCCAID) 137

  Inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K (INPP5K; SKIP) ; Chromosome 17p13.3; Recessive

Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Adducted Thumbs, Ophthalmoplegia & Mental retardation 34

  Autosomal Recessive

CDG: Multisystem Disorder 131

  Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis Class Y protein (PIGY) ; Chromosome 4q22.1; Recessive

Congenital muscular dystrophy & myasthenic syndrome 55

  DOK7 ; Chromosome 4p16.3; Recessive

Congenital disorder of Tendons, Bone, Muscle & Eyes 141

  Procollagen-proline, 2-oxoglutarate-4-dioxygenase, alpha subunit, isoform 1 (P4HA1) ; Chromosome 10q22.1; Recessive

Congenital Myopathy with Neuropathy & Deafness (CMND)

  β-IV-Spectrin, Nonerythrocytic (SPTBN4) ; Chromosome 19q13.2; Recessive

OTHER CONGENITAL WEAKNESS

Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy
  Myotonin protein kinase; Chromosome 19; Dominant Congenital Facioscapulohumeral (FSH) Dystrophy
  Chromosome 4q35; Dominant Metabolic Myopathies Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes

Congenital Neuropathic Syndromes Rule out CNS hypotonia


Broad A band disease


Trilaminar myopathy


Zebra body myopathy 118

  α-Actin (ACTA1; Skeletal muscle) ; Chromosome 1q42.13; Sporadic, ? Dominant

Weakness with early skeletal disorders


Williams-Beuren syndrome

  Autosomal dominant contiguous gene syndrome; Chromosome 7q11.23
  Deleted genes: Elastin ; RFC2 ; LIM-kinase ; GTF3 muscle transcription factor (MusTRD1); GTF2I

Neonatal perifascicular myopathy 1


Immunoneurologic Disorder (Woods-Black-Norbury Syndrome)

  Dominant; Chromosome Xq26-qter

Congenital absence, weakness, or hypoplasia of muscles

Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation (CCDD)
Extraocular muscles
  Axenfeld-Rieger
  Blepharophimosis
  Congenital fibrosis
  Duane retraction syndromes (DRS)
  Möbius syndrome (MBS)
  Ptosis + Scoliosis
    HGPPS1: ROBO3; 11q24
    HGPPS2: DCC; 18q21
  CCDD: ECEL1; 2q37
  CCDD: COLA25A1; 4q25
Face
  Cardiofacial syndrome
  Depressor anguli oris
  Mastication
  Möbius syndrome
Hands
  Finger extensors
  Holt-Oram
  Palmaris longis
  Thenar eminence
Legs
  Peroneus tertius
  Psoas (CHILD)
Trunk
  Abdominal
  Brachial plexus
  Diaphragm
  Pectoral
  Poland syndrome
  Prune belly
  Trapezius

Extraocular muscles


Face

Depressor anguli oris: Cardiofacial syndrome
  Chromosome 22q11.2 (deletion) Dominant; Also Multifactorial

Also see: Congenital facial paresis



Absent Muscles of Mastication: Mouse model

Diaphragm Weakness 78



Hands

Holt-Oram Syndrome
  Human transcription factor TBX5 ; Chromosome 12q24.21; Dominant
Palmaris longus muscle
  Autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance Finger & thumb extensors
  Autosomal Recessive


From: P Bailey

Dextrocardia
Poland Syndrome

Trunk

Pectoral (Poland syndrome)

  Usually sporadic
Trapezius
  Chromosome 8q12.2-q21.2; Dominant Hypoplasia of Shoulder & Neck muscles 126
  Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) ; Chromosome 8q12.2; Dominant (de novo) Superior transverse scapular ligament: Calcification
  Autosomal Dominant
Abdominal musculature: Prune belly syndrome
  Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic, 3 (CHRM3) ; Chromosome 1q43; Recessive & Sporadic

Osler 1901


Legs

Peroneus tertius muscle
  Autosomal recessive

Psoas (CHILD Syndrome)
  NAD(P)H Steroid dehydrogenase-like protein ; Chromosome Xq28; Dominant
  Emopamil-binding protein ; Chromosome Xq28; Dominant



Multicore (Minicore) Myopathy 12

General

ACADS: 12q24
Arthrogryposis
CCDC78: 16p13
Hypogonadism
MEGF10: 5q23
MYH7: 14q11
Ophthalmoplegia
RYR1: 19q13
SECISBP2: 9q22
SEPN1: 1p36
Titin: 2q31

Multicores


Multicore myopathy: General Clinical Features
Multicore (Minicore) Disease
  Selenoprotein N, 1 (SEPN1) ; Chromosome 1p36.11; Recessive or Sporadic

Minicore myopathy with Ophthalmoplegia
Minicore myopathy: Antenatal onset with Arthrogryposis 33
Multicore myopathy: Mental retardation, Short stature & Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Chudley syndrome)
Multicore disease: Congenital myopathy + Fatal dilated cardiomyopathy (EOMFC)
  Titin ; Chromosome 2q31.2; Recessive

Congenital myopathy with Internal nuclei & Atypical Cores (Centronuclear myopathy 4 (CNM4) 93
  Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 78 (CCDC78) ; Chromosome 16p13.3; Dominant


Congenital myopathy with excess of thin filaments 5

α-Actin (ACTA1; Skeletal muscle) ; Chromosome 1q42.13; Sporadic

Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome 143

  Transmembrane protein 8C (TMEM8C; Myomaker) ; Chromosome 9q34.2; Recessive

Reducing Body Myopathies 3, 4

  Four-and-a-half-LIM protein 1 (FHL1) ; Chromosome Xq26.3; Dominant or Semi-Dominant

Fingerprint Body Myopathy


Congenital myopathy with apoptotic changes 9



Hyaline Body Myopathies

MYH7: 14q11.2
  MSMA: Dominant
  MSMB (Scapuloperoneal 3): Recessive
  Scapuloperoneal 2: Dominant
Scapuloperoneal 1: FHL1; Xq26; Dominant


Hyaline Body Myopathy (Myosin Storage; MSMA) 44
  Myosin - Cardiac β heavy chain (MYH7) ; Chromosome 14q11.2; Sporadic or Dominant


Congenital Myopathy with Muscle Spindle Excess (CMEMS) 18

  V-HA-RAS Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) ; Chromosome 11p15.5; Dominant, de novo or Recessive


Congenital Myopathy with Caps 57

General: Mutations in same molecules that produce rod myopathies

Dominant
  1: γ-Tropomyosin 3 (TPM3): 1q22
  2: β-Tropomyosin 2 (TPM2): 9p13
  α-Actin 1, Skeletal muscle (ACTA1): 1q42
Recessive
  Nebulin: 2q23
  Myopalladin: 10q21
Muscle Pathology

Also see
  Myofibrillar (Desmin storage) myopathy
  Cap pathology


Cap Myopathy 2: TPM2 mutations
  β-Tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) ; Chromosome 9p13.3; Dominant


Myofibrillar Myopathy 8 (MFM8): Early-Onset with Internal Nuclei, & Myofibrillar Disorganization 133

  Pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase domain-containing protein 1 (PYROXD1; PYRD1) ; Chromosome 12p12.1; Recessive


X-linked Mental retardation syndrome (Cabezas) 14

  Cullin 4B (CUL4B) ; Chromosome Xq24; Recessive

Congenital Weakness with Diarrhea & Deafness

  Recessive

Congenital Fiber Type Size Disproportion (Type I fibers small) 51

Differential diagnosis
General
CFTD 1: α-Actin: 1q42; Dominant
CFTD 2: Xq13; Recessive
CFTD 3: SEPN1: 1p36; Recessive
CFTD 4: TPM3; 1q21; Dominant
CFTD 5: TPM2; 9p13; Dominant
CFTD: MYL2; 12q24; Recessive
CFTD: HACD1 (PTPLA); 10p12; Recessive
CFTD: MYH7; 14q11; Dominant
CFTD: MYL2; 12q24; Recessive
Myopathy
  SCN4A: 17q23; Recessive
  Titin: 2q31; Recessive
Pathology


Multisystem Selenoprotein Deficiency 83

  Selenocysteine insertion sequence–binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; SBP2) ; Chromosome 9q22.2; Recessive

Ehlers-Danlos, Variant with progressive Kyphoscoliosis, Myopathy & Hearing loss (EDSKMH) 90

  Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase 14 (FK506-binding protein 14; FKBP14) ; Chromosome 7p14.3; Recessive

Shwachman–Diamond Syndrome, Neonatal with Myopathy 127

  SBDS gene ; Chromosome 7q11.21; Recessive

Congenital Myopathy with Type I fiber predominance 134

  Leucine zipper- & Sterile alpha motif-containing kinase (ZAK) ; Chromosome 2q31.1; Recessive
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