Neuromuscular

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MYOGENESIS & MUSCLE REGENERATION

General mechanisms
  Early myogenesis:
    Intrinsic programs
  Secreted factors
  Other molecules
Muscle development
  Head & Neck
  Myogenesis
    Stem cells
    Myogenic progenitors
    Satellite cells
    Side population cells
    Myoblasts
    Myotubes
  Regeneration
bHLH transcription factors
Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp)
Calcineurin
c-met
Desmin
Fibroblast growth factors
Follistatin
GRB2
Laminins
Lbx1
M-cadherin
MEF2 family
Midkine
Mnf (FOXK1)
Mox2
Msx1
Myf5
Myf-6
MyoD
Myogenic determination factors
Myogenin (Myf4)
Myostatin
Noggin
Pax3
Pax3 associated (Eya; SIX)
Pax7
Sonic hedgehog (SHH)
TBX1
TGFβ
VCAM1

From: A Kornberg


Stages in Muscle Development4

Myogenesis

Stage Associated genetic factors Mutant effects
Delamination Pax3; c-met Pax3 mutant: No c-met expression; No lateral migration
Migration c-met/HGF; Lbx1 Migration does not occur
Proliferation ? Pax3; c-met; Mox2; Msx1; Six; (Myf5; MyoD) No proliferation
Determination Myf5; MyoD Myf5 + MyoD muations: Myogenic cell adopts non-muscle phenotype
Differentiation Myogenin; Mcf2; Six; (MyoD; Myf6) Mutants remain as myocytes
Specific muscle
  formation
Lbx1; Mox2 Lbx1 mutants: Extensor & Hindlimb muscle
Mox-2 mutants: Forelimb & Hindlimb muscle
Satellite cells Pax7 Satellite cells absent; No postnatal muscle growth
Head & Neck musculature6 Muscle Growth Muscle Regeneration 5

General mechanisms underlying muscle development 1

Intrinsic programs in muscle precursor cells Secreted factors regulating embryonic muscle development
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References
1. Neuromuscular Disorders 2002;12:438–446
2. Gene Therapy 2002;9:642–647; J Cell Biology 2002;157:851–864
3. Nature 2002;420:418-421; BBRC 2003;300:965-971
4. J Anat 2003;202:59–68, EMBO reports 2003;4:855-860
5. Nature Rev Genet 2003;4:495-505
6. Trends Genet 2007 May 22
7. Development 2011;138:3657-3666

10/30/2013