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N - CH2 - CH2 - CN

Chemical name: N,N'-Dimethylaminopropionitrile
Chemical Formula: C5H10N2

DMAPN: Muscle & Nerve Pathology

Acute denervation: Small angular muscle fibers

Gomori trichrome stain

Chronic denervation with reinnervation: Fiber type grouping

Axon loss: Large & Small

Ultraterminal sprout with axon swelling

Axon loss with collagen pockets

Axon swelling: Contains central cores of axoplasm
with disordered neurofilaments surrounded by an accumulation of densely packed particulate organelles,
including mitochondria, membrane bound vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and dense bodies.


1. Baker EL, Christiani DC, Wegman DH et al (1981) Follow-up studies of workers with bladder neuropathy caused by exposure to dimethylaminopropionitrile. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 7 Suppl 4, 54.

2. Froines JR, Postlethwait EM, LaFuente EJ, Liu WC (1985) In vivo and in vitro release of cyanide from neurotoxic aminonitriles. J Toxicol Environ Health 16, 449.

3. Froines JR, Watson AJ (1985) Evaluation of the inhibition of glycolytic enzymes by the neurotoxicant dimethylaminopropionitrile. J Toxicol Environ Health 16, 469.

4. Gad SC, McKelvey JA, Turney RA (1979) NIAX catalyst ESN: Subchronic neuropharmacology and neurotoxicology. Drug Chem Toxicol 2, 223.

5. Griffin JW, Price DL (1980) Proximal axonopathies induced by toxic chemicals. In: Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology. edited by Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p 161.

6. Jaeger RJ, Plugge H, Szabo S (1980) Acute urinary bladder toxicity of a polyurethane foam catalyst mixture: a possible new target organ for propionitrile derivative. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 4, 555-562.

7. Keogh JP (1983) Classical syndromes in occupational medicine: dimethylaminopropionitrile. Am J Indust Med 4, 479.

8. Keogh JP, Pestronk A, Wertheimer D, Moreland R (1980) An epidemic of urinary retention caused by dimethylaminopropionitrile. JAMA 243, 746.

9. Kreiss K, Wegman DH, Niles CA et al (1980) Neurological dysfunction of the bladder in workers exposed to dimethylaminopropionitrile. JAMA 243, 741.

10. Landrigan PJ, Kreiss K, Xintaras C et al (1980) Clinical epidemiology of occupational neurotoxic disease. Neurobehav Toxicol 2, 43.

11. Levine CI (1961) Structural requirements for lathyrogenic agents. Journal of Experimental Medicine 114, 295.

12. Mumtaz MM, Farooqui MY, Ghanayem BI, Ahmed AE (1991) The urotoxic effects of N,N'-dimethylaminopropionitrile. 2. In vivo and in vitro metabolism. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 110, 61.

13. Mumtaz MM, Farooqui MY, Ghanayem BI et al (1991) Studies on the mechanism of urotoxic effects of N,N'-dimethylaminopropionitrile in rats and mice. 1. Biochemical and morphologic characterization of the injury and its relationship to metabolism. J Toxicol Environ Health 33, 1.

14. Pestronk A, Keogh JP, Griffin JW (1980) Dimethylaminopropionitrile. In: Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology. edited by Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p 422.

15. Union Carbide Corporation (1978) Toxicology information sheet: Dimethylaminopropionitrile.

16. Union Carbide Corporation (1978) Toxicology information sheet: Dimethylaminoethylether.

17. White G, Keogh JP (1978) Health hazard determination report. TA 78-33 NIOSH, Cincinnati.

18. Wilmarth KR, Froines JR (1991) Role of monoamine oxidase in aminopropionitrile- induced neurotoxicity. J Toxicol Environ Health 32, 415.

19. Wilmarth KR, Froines JR (1992) In vitro and in vivo inhibition of lysyl oxidase by aminopropionitriles. J Toxicol Environ Health 37, 411.

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