Neuromuscular

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MYOGENESIS & MUSCLE REGENERATION

General mechanisms
  Early myogenesis: Intrinsic programs
  Secreted factors
  Other molecules
Muscle development
  Head & Neck
  Myogenesis
    Stem cells
    Myogenic progenitors
    Satellite cells
    Side population cells
    Myoblasts
    Myotubes
  Regeneration
bHLH transcription factors
Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp)
Calcineurin
c-met
Desmin
Fibroblast growth factors
Follistatin
GRB2
Laminins
Lbx1
M-cadherin
MEF2 family
Midkine
Mnf (FOXK1)
Mox2
Msx1
Myf5
Myf-6
MyoD
Myogenic determination factors
Myogenin (Myf4)
Myostatin
Noggin
Pax3
Pax3 associated (Eya; SIX)
Pax7
Sonic hedgehog (SHH)
TBX1
TGFβ
VCAM1

From: A Kornberg


Stages in Muscle Development4

Myogenesis

Stage Associated genetic factors
Delamination Pax3; c-met
Migration c-met/HGF; Lbx1
Proliferation ? Pax3; c-met; Mox2; Msx1; Six; (Myf5; MyoD)
Determination Myf5; MyoD
Differentiation Myogenin; Mcf2; Six; (MyoD; Myf6)
Specific muscle
  formation
Lbx1; Mox2
Satellite cells Pax7
Dorsal

Ventral
Sclerotome
  Mesenchymal cells
  Location: Ventral somite
  Derivatives: Ribs & Vertebrae

Dermomyotome
  Epithelial structure
  Forms from somites
  Location: Dorsal somite
  Derivatives: Skin & Skeletal muscles
    Epaxial: Back muscles
    Hypaxial: Trunk & Limb muscles

Myotome
  Origin: Dermomyotome
  Derivative: Trunk muscle

DRG: Dorsal root ganglion
Head & Neck musculature6 Muscle Growth Muscle Regeneration5

General mechanisms underlying muscle development1

Intrinsic programs in muscle precursor cells Secreted factors regulating embryonic muscle development
Return to Neuromuscular Home Page

References
1. Neuromuscular Disorders 2002;12:438–446
2. Gene Therapy 2002;9:642–647; J Cell Biology 2002;157:851–864
3. Nature 2002;420:418-421; BBRC 2003;300:965-971
4. J Anat 2003;202:59–68, EMBO reports 2003;4:855-860
5. Nature Rev Genet 2003;4:495-505
6. Trends Genet 2007 May 22

6/1/2007